Yes, I have too much free time. Why do you ask?

Due to all the questions about EVs/IVs, and the fact that the main site’s guides have some mistakes in them, I’ve decided to write up a brief guide so that people can understand them better.

This is also the thread to discuss anything and everything about EVs/IVs/DVs. The one thing that I ask is NOT to ask what EVs you should put on your Pokemon. These type of questions are better suited to the RMT section of the forums, though I will go into a little bit of detail on that in the guide.

If you make a thread relating to EVs/IVs I will close it and ask you to repost your question in this thread. Just a warning to all of you out there, to hopefully prevent people from whining at me.

IVs – Individual Values

What are IVs?

The easiest way to explain IVs is that they’re like your Pokemon’s genes. They decide how high each of your Pokemon’s stats can go, and are decided when you catch them or receive them, as an Egg or from another character in the game. They never change. They are also the reason why two of the same newly-caught Pokemon at the same level with the same Nature can have different stats.

Each of your Pokemon’s stats has a different IV value from 0 to 31, 0 being awful and 31 being perfect. At LV 100, a Pokemon with 31 IVs in their HP stat will have 31 more HP than a Pokemon with 0 IVs in their HP stat. Therefore, IVs directly correspond with your Pokemon’s stats.

How do I know what IVs my Pokemon has?

This value is hidden, and you can’t tell a Pokemon’s IVs just by looking at their stats. There are a few ways you can determine your Pokemon’s IVs:

1. A very complex formula explained here:

http://www.serebii.net/games/ivs.shtml

2. A much easier to deal with IV calculator:

http://www.serebii.net/games/iv-calc.shtml

Since IV calculators are only COMPLETELY accurate when your Pokemon is at LV 100, the calculator will show the min, max, and average IVs your Pokemon can have. For example, if it shows 20 for the minimum and 25 for the maximum, your Pokemon has an IV of anywhere from 20 to 25. The average will just be the number in between those two numbers, in this case 23. The average is NOT necessarily your Pokemon’s exact IV.

You will get more accurate answers if your Pokemon is at a higher level. Also remember that if you have battled with your Pokemon then you have gained EVs (explained below), which will make the stats inputted in the IV calculator inaccurate. If your Pokemon was not at a high level when you caught it, use Rare Candies until it is as high as you can get it, preferably LV 20 at least. Then you can input the data and reset to save the Rare Candies.

3. In Emerald only, you can check with the “Pokemon Breeder” at the Battle Frontier. If you’re not looking for specific numbers, just the general range of your Pokemon’s IVs, he is your best bet. He is located in the house directly above the Pokemon Center at the BF.

He will rate the first Pokemon in your party, first by TOTAL IV count:

“This one, overall, I would describe as being of average ability.” 0 – 90 total IVs
“This one, overall, I would describe as having better-than-average ability.” 91 – 120 total IVs
“This one, overall, I would say is quite impressive in ability!” 121 – 150 total IVs
“This one, overall, I would say is wonderfully outstanding in ability!” 151 – 186 total IVs

And then he will rate your Pokemon’s highest INVIDIUAL IV count (note that if your Pokemon has more than 1 perfect stat, he will choose one at random to mention):

“Incidentally, the best aspect of it, I would say, is its (insert stat here)..."

“That stat is relatively good. ...Hmm... That's how I call it.” 0 - 15
“That stat is quite impressive. ...Hmm... That's how I call it.” 16 - 25
“That stat is outstanding! ...Hmm... That's how I call it.” 26 - 30
“It's flawless! A thing of perfection! ...Hmm... That's how I call it.” 31

How do I get better IVs?

A Pokemon’s IVs are completely random, but you CAN influence IVs through breeding. A Pokemon will inherit 3 IVs from its parents (which stats pass down their IVs, and which parent they are passed down from, is chosen at random), and the other 3 stats will have random IVs. If you breed parents with good IVs, and you are patient, you will eventually get a baby with very good stats. To ensure that you have a better chance of passing down good IVs, if possible, you can replace one of the parents with a hatchling of the same gender if you find that the hatchling has better IVs.

If you are trying to get good IVs on a Pokemon that can't breed but does have an overworld sprite, such as most legendaries, you can soft-reset for good IVs. To do this, you will have to use the equation linked to above in order to calculate what the Pokemon's stats need to be for it to have perfects IVs at the level you encounter it. Then you'll have to catch it to see what its stats are. Only worry about two or three stats and a good Nature, or you could be soft-resetting for a very long time. You won't be able to use Rare Candies to level it up all the way to calculate its exact IVs because if you do, and it turns out to have excellent IVs, you'll be stuck with an outstanding Pokemon that can't be EV trained (more on this below).

What is HP/Hidden Power and what does it have to do with Ivs?

The move Hidden Power (TM 10) has a different move type and power based on your Pokemon’s IVs. Since IVs don’t change, the Hidden Power your Pokemon has is the one it will always have.

Here is the main site’s page on HP, and an equation on how to figure out what kind your Pokemon has:

http://www.serebii.net/games/hidden-power.shtml

The main site’s IV calculator also shows you your Pokemon’s HP type and power, but again, since IV calculators are only completely accurate at LV 100, you don’t want to rely on the calculator to tell you your Pokemon’s HP. The best way, if you don’t want to bother with the calculation, is to battle a Kecleon. When you use the move, Kecleon will change to the type of your Pokemon’s HP.

If you can’t find Kecleon, or you aren’t using a game that has it, just use process of elimination. For example, if you battle a Grass-type Pokemon and Hidden Power is super effective, it can only be Fire, Poison, Ice, Flying, or Bug. Battle another type to eliminate more options until you’re left with the only possible HP type your Pokemon can have.

EVs – Effort Values

What are EVs?

EVs are the main reason that trained Pokemon are so much better stat-wise than their wild counterparts. Every time you battle, your Pokemon will gain EVs depending on the defending Pokemon, and each Pokemon you battle has a set number of EVs in a set number of stats that it will give you. For example, Zubat gives 1 Speed EV. Rayquaza gives 2 Attack EVs and 1 Sp. Attack EV. The better and stronger your opponent, the more EVs you will gain.

EVs are so important because 4 of them = 1 stat point. Each Pokemon can have a total of 510 EVs, with a max of 255 in a single stat. This means that a Pokemon with full EVs in one stat will have +63 more in that stat than a Pokemon with no EVs.

EV-gain is tied to gaining EXP from battle, so you must defeat the opponent Pokemon to gain the EVs. This also means that any Pokemon that gains EXP from the battle gains full EVs from the defending Pokemon, whether they actually defeat the Pokemon, only participate in the battle (even without attacking), or are holding the EXP Share.

VERY IMPORTANT—Stat gain from EVs is NOT added up all at once, but gradually as your Pokemon gains levels. At LV 100, your Pokemon will have all the stat gain from EVs it is supposed to, but you may not see large stat gains all at once. For example, if you have a low level Pokemon battle 20 Zubat, you will not necessarily see a +5 gain when it levels up. However, you probably WILL see this kind of gain in a LV 50 Pokemon that’s just starting to battle.

Here's another example, since people still seem confused on this point:

Since EV-training adds +63 in a fully trained stat TOTAL, you're not going to see huge leaps and bounds of stats every level. People new to EV-training expect to see +10 in the EV-trained stat every level, but that just doesn't happen since the max is 63. EV-training still makes a difference, but it doesn't add hundreds of points to the stat. Seeing only a +1 or +2 to a stat is NORMAL, and doesn't mean EVs aren't working.

Whompithian has provided us with an equation to figure out how much stat gain from EVs your Pokemon should have received at certain levels, which you can use to make sure your EV training is on track:

Quote Originally Posted by Whompithian
I had a post in the old EV/IV/DV Discussion thread that I believe is still relevant, since it answers a question I have seen asked a lot. So, here is the original post on how to determine how many points will be added to your Pokemon's stats when it levels up, with some minor changes:

To calculate Hit Points:
Math.Floor((BaseStat x 2 + IV + Math.Floor(NewEV / 4) + (Math.Floor(NewEV / 4) – Math.Floor(OldEV / 4)) x Level) / 100 + 1)

To calculate everything else:
Math.Floor((BaseStat x 2 + IV + Math.Floor(NewEV / 4) + (Math.Floor(NewEV / 4) – Math.Floor(OldEV / 4)) x Level) x NatVal / 100)

Here's the breakdown:

Math.Floor() - Ignore any decimal in the final result (i.e. 1.1 = 1, 1.5 = 1, 1.9 = 1, 2.1 = 2, etc.)
BaseStat - Your Pokemon's Base Stat for the stat (constant value.)
IV - Your Pokemon's Individual Value for the stat (constant value.)
NewEV - The current Effort Value of the stat (variable value.)
OldEV - The Effort Value of the stat at the beginning of the current Level (variable value.)
Level - The Pokemon's current Level (this equation determines how many points the stat will increase upon reaching the next level.)
NatVal - Nature Value; the effect the Pokemon's Nature has on the stat (constant value; 0.9 for lower, 1.0 for neutral, 1.1 for upping.)

Here's the logic:

Use this equation during Effort Training to determine if the training is on course. One may compare the results of this equation to the actual stat increase at level-up to determine if Effort Training is working as well as it should. One may create a simplified version of this equation for each stat once One has figured out the three constant values for that stat. Also note that because you may already have a high enough decimal value in your current stat MathFloor() may cause your calculated stat increase to be one lower than your actual stat increase.

(BaseStat x 2 + IV + Math.Floor(NewEV / 4)) x NatVal / 100
Gives how many points a Pokemon will gain when it goes up one Level with its current Effort Value. Not dividing by 100 at the end will give the maximum value the stat can reach at Level 100 with its current Effort Value.

(Math.Floor(NewEV / 4) – Math.Floor(OldEV / 4)) x Level) x NatVal / 100
Gives how many points a Pokemon will gain from the Effort Points it has earned in its current Level. Multiplying the newly earned Effort Points by the current Level calculates the effect these Effort Points have on Levels that were gained before the Effort Points were earned, from Level 0 (theoretical) to the current Level.
What else, besides battling, influences EVs?

There are two other things that will change your Pokemon’s EVs, and those are Vitamins and the EV-reducing Berries in Emerald.

Vitamins are the items Calcium, Carbos, HP Up, Iron, Protein, and Zinc. They each add 10 EVs to the stat that they correspond to. You can ONLY feed your Pokemon Vitamins until they have 100 EVs in that stat. After that is when you will get the “it has no effect” message. The best time to use Vitamins is before the Pokemon has ever battled, so that you can get all 10 in. It’s expensive, but it saves loads of time EV-training.

In Emerald only, Berries #21-26 will raise your Pokemon’s happiness, and also lower their corresponding stat by 10 EVs. The Berries are Pomeg (HP), Kelpsy (Attack), Qualot (Defense), Hondew (Sp. Attack), Grepa (Sp. Defense), and Tamato (Speed).

The normal message you will get when you feed a Pokemon an EV-reducing Berry is “[Pokemon] adores you! The base [stat] fell!” If there are no more EVs left in that stat, but your Pokemon is not at max happiness, you will get the message “[Pokemon] turned friendly! [Stat] can’t fall any more.” If there are no more EVs left in the stat and your Pokemon is at max happiness, you will get the message “It will have no effect.”

If your Pokemon is holding the Macho Brace item, any EVs it gains in battle will be doubled (so Zubat will give 2 Speed EVs instead of 1). In the case of more than one Pokemon participating in the battle, ONLY the one holding Macho Brace will gain the extra EVs. The other Pokemon that gain EXP will gain the normal amount. The only downside is that Macho Brace will decrease your Pokemon’s Speed while in battle, but it will not affect your Pokemon’s actual Speed stat in any way. Once you remove the Macho Brace, it will be back to normal.

Pokerus also doubles EV gain, without the temporary Speed loss that the Macho Brace gives. With Pokerus AND the Macho Brace, you gain 4 times the EVs from one Pokemon!

What is EV-training?

EV-training means battling only Pokemon that give EVs in the stats that you want to raise, making your Pokemon stronger where it matters most. You will gain EVs just from battling normally, but if you choose who you battle, you can make much better use of the EVs.

In-game, the easiest set to have would be 255 EVs in one stat and 255 in another, giving you a final +63 in each of those two stats. This would just require you battling two kinds of Pokemon until you think you’ve gained all the EVs you can.

For those who have the patience to keep careful track of their EVs, since there is no other way to know exactly what EVs your Pokemon has, the more common set is 252, 252, 6. This is because, while 255 is the max EVs you can have in one stat, you are wasting 3 EVs since 4 EVs = 1 stat point. Putting the last 6 in a third stat means that you won’t waste that one extra stat point. The other common in-game set is 252, 129, 129.

In Netbattle, more complex sets are used, but it’s much harder to do in-game, since you have to keep very careful track of your EVs.

What stats should I EV-train in?

This depends completely on the Pokemon and the moveset you are going to use for it.

For example, let’s say you have an Alakazam with this moveset:

Calm Mind
Psychic
Thunderpunch
Ice Punch

This is what’s known as a Special Sweeper, a Pokemon that uses Special Attacks, and usually one stat-increasing move, to quickly wipe out an opponent’s team. These Pokemon need power and speed, so you would want to max out its Special Attack and Speed EVs to make it as effective as possible.

A Tank, which usually has mostly defensive or recovering moves, would want EVs in Defense, Sp. Defense, and HP.

www.smogon.com has moveset and EV spread recommendations, or if you want to ask for opinions on a specific Pokemon, you can go to the RMT section of the forums.

Where are good places to EV-train my Pokemon?

I’m not going to go into what Trainers have Pokemon with what EVs, just the BASIC places to EV-train. The best places are ones that have only (or mostly) Pokemon that give the EVs that you want, so you can do it as quickly as possible.

The other option is Secret Bases, which I’ll get into further down.

Ruby/Sapphire:

HP – Whismur (1 EV) in Rusturf Tunnel OR Marill (2 EVs) Surfing in Petalburg OR Wailmer (1 EV) fishing with Super Rod in many Routes, including 105-110
Attack – Shuppet (1 EV) in Mt. Pyre (Sapphire only) OR Carvanha (1 EV) and Sharpedo (2 EVs) with the Super Rod, Route 118 east of Mauville
Sp. Attack – Numel (1 EV) on Route 112 (run from Marill)
Defense – Clamperl (1 EV) in the grass underwater when using Dive, anywhere (run from Chinchou and Relicanth)
Sp. Defense – Tentacool (1 EV) and Tentacruel (2 EVs) Surfing almost anywhere (run from any other Pokemon)
Speed – Wingull (1 EV), Zigzagoon (1 EV), Electrike (1 EV), Linoone (2 EVs) and Manectric (2 EVs) on Route 118 (run from Kecleon)

Emerald:

HP – Whismur (1 EV) in Rusturf Tunnel OR Marill (2 EVs) Surfing in Petalburg OR Wailmer (1 EV) fishing with Super Rod in many Routes, including 105-110
Attack – Shuppet (1 EV) in Mt. Pyre
Sp. Attack – Spinda (1 EV) and Slugma (1 EV) in Route 113 east of Fallarbor (run from Skarmory) OR Numel (1 EV) on Route 112 (run from Marill)
Defense – Geodude (1 EV), Graveler (2 EVs) and Torkoal (2 EVs) in the Team Magma Base
Sp. Defense - Tentacool (1 EV) and Tentacruel (2 EVs) Surfing almost anywhere (run from any other Pokemon)
Speed – Zubat (1 EV) in Altering Cave

FireRed/LeafGreen

HP – Dunsparce (1 EV) in the grass outside of the cave on Three Island
Attack – Paras (1 EV) in the lower levels of Mt. Moon
Sp. Attack – Gastly (1 EV) and Haunter (2 EVs) in Pokemon Tower (run from Cubone)
Defense – Tangela (1 EV) in the grass south of Pallet Town
Sp. Defense - Tentacool (1 EV) and Tentacruel (2 EVs) Surfing almost anywhere (run from any other Pokemon)
Speed – Diglett (1 EV) and Dugtrio (1 EV) in Diglett’s Cave

Secret Base EV-training only works in R/S/E, and only if you have two games, or a friend with a game. In your other game, make a team of 6 of the same Pokemon that give 3 EVs to the stat that you want. Establish a Secret Base, then mix records with your main game. You now have a place to battle, once a day, where you can get 18 EVs each day (double/four times that if you have the Macho Brace/Pokerus/both). It’s also a good idea to get rid of all attacking moves on the Pokemon in the base, so that they’re easier to fight.

Here are suggestions for Pokemon to obtain that don’t take a lot of effort to train up to their final forms:

HP – Azumarill
Attack – Shiftry, Victreebel
Sp. Attack – Beautifly
Defense – Golem
Sp. Defense – Dustox
Speed – Raichu, Jumpluff

If you want to know which other Pokemon give which EVs, you can search the site’s Pokedex by EV type, here:

http://www.serebii.net/pokedex-rs/ev.shtml

How do I know what EVs my Pokemon has, or when their EVs are maxed out?

Unfortunately, there’s no way to know what EVs your Pokemon has unless you have been keeping track of each and every Pokemon you battle.

However, in R/S/E, there is a woman in the Slateport Market who will give your Pokemon an Effort Ribbon when their EVs are maxed out (all 510). There is no way to know if your Pokemon has maxed EVs in FR/LG.

What else should I know before I start EV training?

Rare Candies: These items have NO ill effects on your Pokemon, they merely raise your Pokemon’s level without giving them any EVs. They are helpful to use on low-level Pokemon, to get them to a decent level before you start battling for EVs, or on Pokemon that already have full EVs, so that you don’t have to waste the time battling to level them up.

The one thing you don’t want to do is to raise your Pokemon ONLY on Rare Candies, since this will mean they will gain no EVs, and therefore be weaker than Pokemon with full EVs.

LV 100 Pokemon: LV 100 Pokemon can not gain EVs, since EV-gain is based on gaining EXP in battle, which LV 100 Pokemon don’t do. However, you CAN raise their EVs with Vitamins. In G/S/C there was a “box trick” where you could battle with a LV 100 Pokemon, then deposit it into the PC and withdraw it, and it would have the stat gain from the EVs it obtained through battle, but this does not work in any of the 3rd gen games.

DVs – Dynamic Values

What are DVs?

In the 3rd gen games, DVs are just a term to describe ALL of the values in the game that affect a Pokemon’s stats, and make one Pokemon different from the other. Besides IVs and EVs, here are the others:

Level

The one basic thing that every player knows is that when your Pokemon’s level rises, so do their stats. The stats your Pokemon will have at certain levels (not counting any of the other DVs, like EVs/IVs/Nature/etc) is determined by its base stats, which are listed in each Pokemon’s entry in the main site’s Pokedex.

Natures

You can see a list of all Natures on the main site, here. Each Nature raises one stat by 10%, and lowers another by 10%. There are no Natures that affect the HP stat.

There are also five neutral Natures (Hardy, Docile, Serious, Bashful, and, Quirky) which raise and lower the same stat, so they do not affect your Pokemon’s stats at all.

Gender

Okay, so it doesn’t affect stats, but this still counts as a DV. Each Pokemon has a number from 0 to 255 that controls their gender. With Pokemon that are either always male, always female, or genderless, they still have a number, but it doesn’t really affect anything.

For Pokemon with a 50/50 chance of being male/female, a GV from 0 – 127 will mean they will be female, and one from 128 – 255 will mean they will be male.

For Pokemon with a 75/25 chance of being male/female, a GV from 0 – 63 will mean they will be female, and one from 64 – 255 will mean they will be male.

For Pokemon with a 25/75 chance of being male/female, a GV from 0 – 191 will mean they will be female, and one from 192 – 255 will mean they will be male.

For Pokemon with a 12.5/87.5 chance of being male/female (no, I am not making this up—this is the normal ratio for Pokemon like starters, Eevee, etc), a GV from 0 – 223 will mean they will be female, and one from 224 – 255 will mean they will be male.

Useful Resources

These are all the things I find helpful for dealing with DVs. Most have been linked throughout the guide, but here they all are in one place, plus a few more:

Pages on the main site
IV Equation
IV Calculator
HP Equation
Natures Page
Pokemon listed by what EVs they give

Other pages

Metalkid's Site
Kept meaning to add this. >>;; It has a downloadable program that not only has a very accurate IV calculator but an entire Pokemon planner that can help you calculate stats with different IVs/EVs, choose moves, find breeding chains, and more.

Psypoke’s Stat Calculator
GREAT tool, just input the Pokemon, level, and their EVs/IVs/Nature, and it will tell you what stat it will have.

Smogon.com
Site with moveset and EV spread suggestions for every Pokemon.

Thanks to:

Whompithian for their EV equation and their massive help on the IVs section, Psypoke for lots of info, Pokemon Forever/Pokefor (and archive.org for helping me find deleted pages) for even more info, and everyone on the forums for asking loads of questions I wanted to answer.

If you have anything you think I should add, change, whatever, please let me know! I’d prefer you to PM me, but you can post suggestions here if you’re adding something to the actual discussion as well.